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Start Agreements

The duration of the new contract is ten years and cannot be renewed for up to five years. It contains a standard withdrawal clause, like most arms control agreements. The 2002 Moscow Treaty was replaced by the subsequent treaty. [25] At the summit in Moscow from 1 to 3 September, Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton reaffirmed their commitment to push for a further reduction of strategic nuclear weapons, but were unable to announce concrete measures for the ratification of START II by the Russian Duma. A joint statement by the two heads of state and government said: «Russia and the United States will continue to fulfill their obligations under the ABM and START arms reduction agreements and will cooperate with Russia`s rapid ratification of START II.» The two presidents also reiterated their commitment, made at their Helsinki Summit in March 1997, to begin discussions on START III after the ratification of START II. The verification provisions contained in arms control contracts contain many instruments that allow them to bring the parties to justice for their actions and violations of their contractual agreements. [2] The START contract review provisions were the most complex and demanding at that time, providing for twelve different types of inspections. Data exchanges and declarations were required between the parties, which contained exact quantities, technical characteristics, sites, movements and the status of all offensive nuclear threats. The National Technical Verification (NTM) protected satellites and other information collection systems controlled by the monitoring site, as they helped verify compliance with international treaties. International technical verification rules protected multilateral technical systems defined in other treaties. Cooperation measures were put in place to facilitate verification by the, which included displaying objects in sight and did not protect them from detection.

New on-site inspections (OSI) and continuous perimeter and portal control (PPCM) have both helped to preserve the integrity of the contract by providing at all times a regulatory system occupied by a representative of the audit site. [10] In addition, access to telemetry tests through ballistic missile tests is now required, including tape replacement and the prohibition of encryption and encapsulation by both parties. [11] [Page required] On 17 March 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev indicated that Russia would begin to rearm Russia`s nuclear arsenal «on a large scale». President Medvedev accused NATO of continuing expansion close to Russia`s borders and ordered that this rearmament begin in 2011 with enhanced capabilities of the army, navy and nuclear energy. In addition, the head of Russia`s strategic missile forces, Nikolay Solovtsov, told news agencies that Russia would begin deploying its next-generation RS-24 missiles after the START-1 contract with the United States expires on December 5. Russia hopes to amend the START-1 treaty with a new agreement. Tensions have escalated despite warming U.S.-Russian relations in the two years since U.S. President Barack Obama took office. [20] At a press conference held on 19 December in Brussels following a NATO conference, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov said that START II would never enter into force because of the US decision to withdraw from the ABM Treaty.

According to Ivanov, the U.S. DECISION not only caused the «disappearance of the entire legal mechanism that governs the reduction of strategic offensive armaments,» but also undermined all existing non-proliferation and nuclear test agreements, and even the additional protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention.